Table of Contents
Usually, aerobic fermentation is selected for the fermentation and decomposition of organic fertilizers. Aerobic fermentation is a method of using aerobic microorganisms to achieve harmlessness and stabilization in the case of manure composting, and then transform it into high-quality organic fertilizers. . Comparatively speaking, aerobic composting has the characteristics of simple process, low investment and low operating cost, and can effectively kill pathogenic microorganisms. It is a safe, effective and economical reasonable disposal method. The following will introduce Aerobic decomposition of organic matter requirements, principles and equipment to you.
The principle of aerobic decomposition of organic fertilizer:
Aerobic decomposition of organic matter requires refers to a fermentation process that relies on aerobic microorganisms to biodegrade organic matter in an aerobic environment. Aerobic microorganisms convert the organic matter in the fermentation material into CO2, humus and heat by relying on their own life activities. Aerobic microorganisms can directly absorb and utilize the small molecular organic matter in the fermentation material. For macromolecular organic matter, it needs to secrete in vitro enzymes to degrade it once, and then it can be absorbed again to maintain life activities such as reproduction.
Aerobic decomposition of organic matter requires many microorganisms in the process, among which the most important aerobic microorganisms are bacteria and actinomycetes. Bacteria are the most numerous of them. The specific surface area enables bacteria to quickly absorb various small molecular organic substances, promote their own reproduction and generate heat. Actinomycetes are larger than bacteria, can withstand higher temperatures, and can apply certain mechanical interspersed to the material to achieve physical damage, which is conducive to further fermentation. There are mineralization, humification and co-metabolism during fermentation.
Mineralization mainly refers to the process of converting organic matter into inorganic matter and simple small-molecule organic matter; humification is the process of converting refractory substances into humic substances; and co-metabolism refers to an enzymatic reaction, which only converts organic matter but not humic substances. Not completely broken down. The aerobic fermentation of organic fertilizers is roughly divided into three stages: the middle temperature stage, the high temperature stage and the cooling stage. The temperature in the mesophilic stage is between 15 and 45 °C, at which time the mesophilic microorganisms are the most active, mainly degrading sugar and starch; the high temperature stage means that the temperature of the fermentation material rises above 45 °C, when the thermophilic microorganisms are the most active, and organic matter is degraded to form Humus; the cooling stage refers to the process of temperature drop in the later stage of fermentation, during which the humus keeps increasing and becomes more and more stable.
The aerobic decomposition process of organic matter mainly depends on the action of aerobic microorganisms, so all factors that affect the biological activity of aerobic microorganisms and corresponding biological enzymes affect the fermentation efficiency of organic fertilizers. To sum up, it mainly includes temperature, pH value, organic matter content, moisture content, oxygen content, and carbon-nitrogen ratio. Temperature and pH value mainly affect the activity of aerobic microorganisms. Different microbial populations can adapt to different temperature and pH value ranges. Unsuitable temperature and pH value will cause microorganisms to be inhibited or even die. Water content will affect the nutrition inside the material. Material flow and oxygen flow, carbon-nitrogen ratio and organic matter content mainly affect the reproduction of microorganisms and the quality of the final fertilizer. The best reasonable range of each influencing factor can be obtained through relevant experiments and years of production practice experience. The optimum moisture content during fermentation is 45%~50%, the optimum carbon-nitrogen ratio is (30~35): 1, the optimum pH value is 7.5~8.5, and the optimum fermentation temperature is 60~65℃. The change of fermentation temperature is fed back for real-time control.
Aerobic decomposition of organic matter requires equipment:
In each process of aerobic fermentation of organic fertilizer, there are corresponding mechanical equipment. Taking pig manure as the raw material for fermentation as an example: now the farm is mainly washed with water, and the water content of the discharged manure is extremely high, so the solid liquid separator is the most important equipment in its pretreatment, and the commonly used solid-liquid separation equipment is mostly used for spiral Squeeze.
At present, the fermentation methods used by domestic manufacturers mainly include tank fermentation, strip-stack fermentation and tower fermentation. In order to make the materials fully ventilated and oxygenated, the materials need to be turned over during the fermentation process.
The trough type mainly uses the trough type stacker, and the strip type mainly uses the wheel type stacker and the crawler type stacker. In the tower fermentation method, the fermentation tank itself is an expensive equipment, and there is a ventilation and oxygen supply pipeline inside, and the stacking is realized by the flipping action.
The post-processing process of the fermented material by the existing manufacturers is mainly granulation. In order to meet the needs of users, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other elements are often added. The granulation method is mainly divided into two types: extrusion granulation and agglomeration method.
Different equipment has different production capacity, and each manufacturer selects the corresponding granulation equipment according to its own production capacity. Common granulation equipment includes roll granulator, extrusion granulator, disc granulator and spinning granulator.