Table of Contents
In recent years, with the proposal of the national rural revitalization strategy, the pace of building beautiful villages has been gradually accelerated. The treatment of breeding waste is not only an urgent problem to be solved in the construction of new rural areas, but also a key link for extending the industrial chain for the farm, increasing the added value of breeding, turning waste into treasure, and increasing the efficiency of breeding. With the increasing number of cattle and sheep breeding in my country, the process and equipment for the fermentation of cattle and sheep dung to produce organic fertilizers has progressed rapidly. However, many equipments do not match the scale of breeding and are not compatible with the fermentation process, resulting in long fermentation cycles and poor production. Problems such as poor quality of organic fertilizer products. Through systematic and scientific research on the characteristics of several organic fertilizer fermentation equipment, ideas for optimizing the existing turning and polishing machines are proposed, and theoretical and scientific basis for the scientific selection of organic fertilizer fermentation equipment and processes for farms with different breeding scales and production conditions.
Fermentation method and characteristics of organic fertilizer
There are 4 common organic fertilizer fermentation methods: tank fermentation, strip-stack fermentation, high-temperature closed fermentation tank and nano-film-covered fermentation. Tank fermentation requires the construction of an above-ground or underground fermentation tank. Guide rails are laid on the partition walls on both sides of the fermentation tank, and the tank type turning machine walks on the guide rail. At the same time, the system is equipped with a rail change mechanism to realize the conversion between different fermentation tanks. . Tank fermentation has the characteristics of large single processing capacity and high investment in facilities and equipment, which is suitable for large-scale farms. There is no need to build a fermentation tank in the stack-type fermentation. On the flat ground after the hardening treatment, the manure is stacked into a stack with a certain height and width. Rotate, send natural wind into the pile from both sides of the pile, provide oxygen, and realize compost fermentation. The stacking type fermentation facility has less investment, and the stacking type turning machine has various forms and different prices. High-temperature closed fermentation tank fermentation is carried out in a closed fermentation tank whose temperature, ventilation, and stirring can be controlled artificially. The single treatment volume is small, suitable for poultry farms.
Principles and characteristics of different turning machines
1. Groove Turner
The trough turning machine is composed of turning device, power system, transmission system, walking system and frame, and is generally driven by electric power. The working principle is that the high-speed rotating knife roller of the turning machine flips, smashes and throws the material back to realize the turning work. The depth of the main trough of the trough turning machine is 0.7~2.5m, and some are paved with ventilation pipes or heating pipes at the bottom of the troughs to increase ventilation or temperature. According to the working principle, the trough type turning machine can be divided into drum type, chain plate type, screw type and toothed type.
2. Bar stacker turning and polishing machine
According to the different walking modes, the strip-type turning and throwing machine can be divided into traction type and self-propelled type.
The self-propelled stacker is composed of a power system, a control system, a walking system, and a frame. When working, the motor drives the transmission system, and then drives the lever to rotate to realize reverse flipping and throwing. At the same time, the steering system can realize the conversion between bars and stacks, and adjusting the jack can realize lateral movement.
1. Rack frame 2. Bearing 3. Coupling 4. First motor 5. Main shaft 6. Walking transmission rod 7. Toggle lever 8. Toggle lever mounting seat 9. Second motor 10. Pulley 11. Worm gear reducer 12. Walking transmission chain 13. Third motor 14. Right jack 15. Lateral movement chain 16. Right lateral movement wheel 17. Right forward wheel 18. Left forward wheel 19. Left lateral movement wheel 20. Left 21. Main shaft drive chain.
The machine is driven by motor, energy saving and environmental protection, no need for manual driving, remote control operation can be realized within 100 meters, improving labor environment, reducing labor intensity, simple operation, convenient maintenance and good economy.
(1) Develop in the direction of intelligence. With the advancement of control technology, it is required to realize intelligent control of temperature, oxygen supply, and number of tosses during the turning process, so as to improve the fermentation efficiency, shorten the fermentation cycle, and reduce losses caused by human factors, such as the waste of organic matter caused by excessive fermentation. Insufficiently decomposed and incompletely fermented organic fertilizers are applied to the ground, causing problems such as burning seedlings and soil pollution.
(2) To develop in the direction of simple operation, improved working environment and labor intensity. The storage environment of breeding waste is poor. During the fermentation process, it is often accompanied by flies and odors, which affects the health of workers and reduces work efficiency. For this reason, turning and throwing equipment that can realize remote operation or a relatively airtight fermentation process will be favored by farmers.