1. Mixing of raw materials: the main material is livestock and poultry manure, pulverize the ingredients (straw, waste tobacco leaves, planting and processing waste, etc.), add organic biological bacterial fertilizer, and appropriately add some phosphate rock powder, potassium rock powder, phosphate rock Try to purchase medium-grade phosphate rock (total phosphorus content> 18%). The amount of phosphate rock powder added to the organic fertilizer raw materials should consider the pH of the raw materials. More phosphate rock powder, neutral and slightly alkaline raw materials can be added to weakly acidic raw materials. Add natural potassium and magnesium sulfate fertilizers, etc., to adjust the nutrients, carbon-nitrogen ratio, carbon-phosphorus ratio, pH value, etc. of the material. After the treatment, the moisture content of the raw material is controlled at 60%-65%, and the C/N ratio is 20-30. The production of bio-organic fertilizer needs to add beneficial bacteria and functional bacterial agents, which need to be added when the temperature of the material is less than 40 degrees after the fermentation high temperature period. The batching stirring function, fermentation stirring function and stirring drying function simplify the production process. This process is designed as an integrated workshop for mixing ingredients, fermentation, aging (decomposed) and drying, reducing the multiple handling of materials.
Matters needing attention: In the composition of raw materials before composting, the carbon-nitrogen ratio and moisture of the raw materials are mainly considered, followed by particle size and pH: the reasonable range of carbon-nitrogen ratio: 20:1-40:1, the best range: 25:1- 30:1; reasonable range of moisture content: 40%-65%, optimal range: 50%-60%; reasonable range of particle size: 0.32cm-1.27cm, depending on the material, heap and weather; reasonable pH value Range: 5.5-9.0, Best range: 6.5-8.0.
2. Fermentation: Fermentation of organic fertilizer raw materials adopts aerobic fermentation process, using trough fermentation turning and throwing machine, paddle (rotary tooth type, can be reversed) to cut and throw the material, and the organic material can be moved backward during turning and throwing. It moves back about 2.2 meters each time; the turning and throwing machine has a stirring function and can be used as a mixer. When ingredients are mixed, the layered materials can be stirred evenly and then enter the fermentation area (or fermentation period), which can greatly save the pre-mixing of raw materials. Equipment investment, material loading, unloading, transportation, and pre-mixing workload, mix broiler manure, cassava residue and 0.15% organic material decomposing agent as evenly as possible, stack up 60-80 cm high stacks, and use flipping every 2-3 days. The machine is turned over once, and the temperature is controlled below 70 °C during fermentation. Generally, the odorless effect can be achieved in about 20 days, that is, the fermentation is completely decomposed.
Matters needing attention: During the composting process, the main control is the temperature change. The complete composting process consists of four stages: low temperature, medium temperature, high temperature and cooling. The compost temperature is generally maintained at 50-60 °C, and can reach 70-80 °C at the highest. The process of gradually increasing the temperature of compost from low is a harmless treatment process of compost (the compost temperature is maintained between 45°C and 65°C for 10 days, and pathogenic bacteria, insect eggs and grass seeds can be killed). When the compost temperature rises above 60°C, keep it for 48 hours to start turning the heap, but when the compost temperature rises above 70°C, it must be turned immediately. The turning must be even and thorough, and the bottom material should be turned to the middle and upper part as far as possible so as to be fully decomposed. The frequency of turning depends on the maturity of the organic fertilizer; the pH of the fertilizer should be well controlled. decline. At this time, if the acidity is too high (pH<5.3), lime or plant ash can be added according to 2%-3% of the weight of the raw material to neutralize the acidity and destroy the wax on the surface of the organic material to accelerate fermentation; in the later stage of composting, due to the accumulation of ammonia, pH It will gradually increase. When the pH is greater than 8.5, fresh green manure, grass, etc. can be added to decompose and regenerate organic acids and reduce pH.
3. Air-drying and powder sieving: transport the fermented raw materials to the outdoor drying field, and ensure that the moisture content is below 20% after natural drying. Sieve to remove impurities.
Matters needing attention: It is recommended to appropriately carry out secondary fermentation in the post-processing of compost (before air-drying), especially for the raw materials with a large proportion of livestock and poultry manure in the primary fermentation, so as to avoid the rapid reproduction of the secondary fermentation during the application of the finished fertilizer into the soil. The microorganisms and vegetable roots compete for oxygen, resulting in the phenomenon of burning roots and seedlings.
4. Inspection and packaging: The organic raw materials that have been crushed and sieved are directly quantitatively packaged after passing the inspection (sent to external inspection), which is the powdered finished organic fertilizer. Granulated by the organic fertilizer granulator is the granular finished organic fertilizer.
Matters needing attention: Before sending for external inspection, judge whether it is fully decomposed by the color and smell of the finished fertilizer. Only the fully decomposed organic finished fertilizer can apply for external inspection. The incompletely decomposed finished fertilizer needs to be post-treated (or secondary fermentation). The finished fertilizers that pass the external inspection can be directly bagged or granulated and then bagged. The finished fertilizers that do not meet the nutrient content in the external inspection results need to be returned to the composting workshop, where high nutrient content raw materials are added to compost and ferment again.