Table of Contents
In recent years, in agricultural production, excessive emphasis has been placed on the use of inorganic fertilizers and the use of organic fertilizers has been neglected, which has caused great changes in soil physics, chemistry and biological shape, which are highlighted in the following seven aspects: acid, thin, greedy, Miscellaneous, dirty, salty, plate.
The content of soil organic matter in my country decreases, the quality of soil organic matter is aging, the activity is reduced, the renewal rate is slow, and the effect is weakened; the nutrients in the soil: the imbalance between nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, and the imbalance between nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and medium and micronutrients, the Micronutrients are deficient or fixed by the soil. Organic-inorganic clay composite colloid, each nutrient element is in a macromolecule integrated state, adsorption and analysis, balanced and efficient release, nutrients and water can be taken at any time, so that the soil is stable, uniform, sufficient and suitable to supply water, fertilizer, gas, etc. to plants. hot. Water and air in the soil occupy the same space, and the two are prone to conflict, causing the root growth of soil compacted plants to be hindered; the application of medium and trace element fertilizers has not been paid enough attention, resulting in aggravated nutrient imbalance and increased vegetable physiological diseases.
The main reasons for “hardening”:
1. Low organic matter and poor buffering,
2. The soil structure destroys chemical fertilizers,
3, flood irrigation,
4.No deep ploughing; hazards: low airtightness, low water content, poor water and fertilizer retention, and hindered root growth.
Problems existing in the current soil plough layer:
The soil plough layer becomes shallow, the plough bottom moves up and thickens, which affects the infiltration of precipitation into the deep soil layer and prevents the root system from going down, which is not conducive to water storage and drip retention and the absorption and utilization of deep soil water by the root system. Reasons: The plough layer becomes shallower, the plow layer becomes heavier, the amount of live soil decreases, the soil structure deteriorates, and the production capacity decreases. Organic-inorganic clay composite colloid is an important cementing agent for soil aggregates. Under the action of calcium ions, it can form a stable aggregate structure, adjust the balance of water, gas and heat, make the soil loose, ventilated and warm, and have more moisturizing and thermal insulation properties; ultra-concentration Highly efficient organic-inorganic composite colloids with diminishing returns and a threat to the environment.
The problems of land fertilization in my country are:
Focusing on quantity, light quality, inorganic, and organic, the effect of increasing the yield of chemical fertilizers gradually decreases; the average utilization rate of nitrogen fertilizer is 30%~35%, the average utilization rate of phosphorus fertilizer is 10%~20%, and the average utilization rate of potassium fertilizer is 35%~50% %; the utilization rate of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers in developed countries has reached about 50%. Soil acidification breeds fungi, aggravates bacterial wilt root, rot root, tumefaciens, and nematode damage; hydrogen ions have an antagonistic effect on absorbing other cations, soil structure is destroyed, soil is hardened, and various ions are precipitated in large quantities to produce toxic effects on crops. The dominant microorganisms have: soil resistance, material transformation, soil health, environmental capacity, nutrient cycling, buffering properties.
The factors of soil pollution are:
Agricultural residues, radioactive elements, pathogenic substances, heavy metals, antibiotics, chemical fertilizers and pesticides affect the growth of crops and the quality of agricultural products and thus affect human health.
As a result, microbial fertilizers are particularly important today and have a great responsibility:
1. Promote rapid growth: beneficial microorganisms such as Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus jelly in the flora produce a large amount of plant endogenous enzymes during the metabolic process, which can significantly improve the absorption rate of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium by crops. .
2. Regulate life activities, increase production and income: Bacillus jelly, Bacillus lateralis, Bacillus licheniformis and other beneficial bacteria in the flora can promote the growth of crop roots and increase fibrous roots. Plant endogenous enzymes and plant growth regulators produced by the metabolism of beneficial microbial flora enter plants through the root system to promote leaf photosynthesis.
3. Improve quality: Bacillus lateralis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulans, etc. in the flora can reduce the nitrate content in plants, reduce the content of heavy metals, increase the content of Vc in the fruit, and increase the soluble sugar content. Lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus subtilis, etc. can increase the content of essential amino acids, vitamins and unsaturated fatty acids in fruits. The fruit has a good taste, is durable in storage, and has a high selling price.
4. Decompose organic substances and toxins to prevent continuous cropping: beneficial microorganisms such as Aspergillus oryzae, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus subtilis and other beneficial microorganisms in the flora can accelerate the decomposition of organic substances, produce quick-acting nutrients and provide power for crops, and can decompose toxic and harmful continuous crops. material to prevent repeated cropping.
5. Protect the soil root environment: After the beneficial microorganisms such as Bacillus licheniformis in the flora are applied to the soil, they rapidly multiply to become the dominant flora, control the nutrients and resources of the root, and prevent repeated cropping, root rot, blight, gum flow, Botrytis and other pathogens lose their living space and conditions. The cell wall of plant root cells is thickened, fibrotic, lignified, and horny double silicon layer is formed, forming a solid barrier to prevent the invasion of pathogenic bacteria.
6. Enhance the stress resistance of crops: Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus lateralis and other beneficial microorganisms in the flora can enhance the buffer capacity of soil and enhance the drought resistance, cold resistance and waterlogging resistance of crops; at the same time, Bacillus lateralis It can also strengthen the protective film of leaves, resist the infection of pathogenic bacteria, and make crops resistant to diseases and insects.