Table of Contents
The principle of organic fertilizer fermentation:
The organic matter in compost underwent a complex transformation under the action of microorganisms, which can be summarized into two processes:
1. It is the mineralization process of organic matter, that is, the decomposition of complex organic matter into simple substances, which then generate carbon dioxide, water, and mineral nutrients;
2. It is the humification process of organic matter, that is, organic matter is decomposed and then synthesized to produce more complex special organic matter and humus. The two processes are carried out simultaneously but in the opposite direction. Under different conditions, the intensity of each has obvious differences.
Why is compost turned over:
Realize the mineralization of organic matter and the mineralization of compost organic matter, which can provide rich nutrients for crops and microorganisms, provide energy for microbial activities, and prepare basic raw materials for the humification of compost organic matter. When composting is dominated by aerobic microbial activities, the organic matter is rapidly mineralized to generate more carbon dioxide, water, and other nutrients, decomposed quickly and thoroughly, and release a lot of heat energy;
The decomposition rate of organic matter is slow and often incomplete when the activity of anaerobic microorganisms is the main, and the release of heat energy is less. In addition to plant nutrients, the decomposition products are easy to accumulate organic acids and reducing substances such as CH4, H2S, PH3, and H2. When the decomposition products reach a certain degree, they are unfavorable or even harmful to the growth of crops. Therefore, turning over during compost fermentation is also used to change the type of microbial activity to eliminate harmful substances.
Compost fermentation process:
1. Composting is actually a form of waste stabilization, but it requires special humidity, aeration conditions, and microorganisms to produce a suitable temperature. Generally, this temperature is higher than 45°C. Maintaining this high temperature can inactivate pathogenic bacteria and kill weed seeds. After reasonable composting, the residual organic matter has a low decomposition rate, is relatively stable, and is easily absorbed by plants. The smell can be greatly reduced after composting.
2. There are many different types of microorganisms involved in the composting process. Due to changes in raw materials and conditions, the number of various microorganisms is constantly changing, so no microorganisms always dominate the composting process. Every environment has its own specific microbial flora, and the diversity of microorganisms allows compost to avoid system breakdown even when external conditions change.
3. The composting process is mainly carried out by the action of microorganisms, which are the main body of composting fermentation. There are two sources of microorganisms involved in composting: one is the original large number of microorganisms in the organic waste; the other is the artificially added microbial inoculant. Under certain conditions, these bacteria have a strong ability to decompose certain organic wastes. They have the characteristics of strong activity, fast reproduction, and rapid decomposition of organic matter. Can accelerate the composting reaction process, shorten the composting reaction time.
4. Compost fermentation generally adopts through compost, which has a large yield and high efficiency. For specific methods, please see Ways to make an organic fertilizer compost pit.
The difference between aerobic composting and anaerobic composting:
Compost is generally divided into aerobic compost and anaerobic compost two kinds. Aerobic composting is a process of organic material decomposition under the condition of oxygen, and its metabolites are mainly carbon dioxide, water, and heat. Anaerobic composting is a process of decomposition of organic materials in the absence of oxygen. The final metabolites of anaerobic composting are methane, carbon dioxide, and many intermediate products of low molecular weight, such as organic acids.
Summary of the principle and process of organic fertilizer composting fermentation:
The main types of microorganisms involved in the composting process are bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes. These three kinds of microorganisms have mesophilic bacteria and thermophilic bacteria.
During the composting process, the microbial populations change alternately with the temperature changes as follows: low and medium temperature flora is mainly transformed into medium and high-temperature flora, and medium and high-temperature flora is mainly transformed into medium and low-temperature flora. With the extension of composting time, bacteria gradually decrease, actinomycetes gradually increase, and molds and yeasts are significantly reduced at the end of composting.
It can be seen from the above that the fermentation process of organic compost is actually a process of metabolism and reproduction of various microorganisms. The decomposition of organic matter will inevitably produce energy, which promotes the composting process, increases the temperature, and can also dry the wet substrate.