Table of Contents
Agricultural waste and farm manure are the main raw materials for the processing and production of organic fertilizers. In fact, among the plant residues that are directly used as organic fertilizers are mainly crop straw residues, mustard leaves, green manure and green plants for fertilizer. Next, Tianci will mainly introduce to you that the current methods of using plant residues as organic fertilizers mainly include the following:
Plant residues are directly returned to the field
Direct return to the field can be divided into crush return and whole stalk return. Crushing and returning to the field can accelerate the decomposition of plant residues in the soil and are easily absorbed by the soil. The whole stalk returning is to use machinery to turn over the whole stalks of the upright crop straw residues in the field or lay them flat for mulching cultivation. This technology has the advantages of high efficiency, labor saving and time saving. However, there are also many weaknesses in the direct return of machinery to the field. First, it consumes a lot of energy and costs; second, the use of machinery in mountainous and hilly areas is limited; The unfermented and rotted dry straw buried in the farmland will not be able to fertilize the field, but will affect the emergence rate of the crops. Fourth, the direct returning method will bring the plant pathogenic bacteria back to the field. With continuous farming, crop diseases will become more and more serious.
Plant residue covered and returned to the field
Plant residue mulching and returning to the field is to cover the plant residue of the previous season on the field where the plants of the next season are planted. After the plants of the next season are harvested, the rotten plant residue of the previous season is turned over and pressed into the soil. This technology, like mechanical crushing and returning to the field, can increase the content of soil organic matter, supplement the content of soil nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and trace elements, improve soil physical and chemical properties, promote the biological cycle of substances in the soil, and improve soil hydraulic conductivity and water storage. Ability to promote the growth of the above-ground parts of the plant. At the same time, because plant residues are poor conductors of heat, under mulching, the field can form a “high temperature effect” at low temperature and a “low temperature effect” at high temperature, adjust the soil temperature, and effectively alleviate the damage to crops when the temperature changes suddenly. The method has the advantages of low cost, direct and convenient operation, remarkable soil improvement effect and the like. There are also some problems in the technology of planting and returning to the field. One is that during the covering process, the plant residues gradually rot, and the soluble substances formed by them are easily lost with water, causing a large loss of nutrients in the plant residues and aggravating agricultural non-point source pollution; Take it back to the field to breed crop diseases.
Plant residue composting, retting, decomposing and returning to field
Stack retting is the main way to solve the current shortage of organic fertilizer in my country, and it is also an important measure to improve soil and fertilize soil in low- and medium-yield fields. One method is to use traditional composting and retting to return to the field, but it takes a lot of time and losses; the other method is to use fast composting agents to produce a large amount of cellulase, and retting crop residues into organic fertilizers in a short period of time . In addition, the use of enzyme bacteria technology in the production of organic fertilizers from plant residues has good economic, social and ecological benefits. This technology mostly uses high temperature, airtight and other conditions to decompose plant residues, which can reduce the harm of field diseases, insect pests and weeds. However, if producers do not have unified production technology standards, the production and operation processes vary widely, and the product quality is unstable, which is not conducive to popularization and application.
Returning plant residues to field
Returning to the field through the abdomen is to use plant residues as livestock feed, digest and absorb them, and return them to the soil in the form of feces. At present, the technology of silage ammonification and returning to the field is mainly popularized and applied, which realizes a virtuous cycle of plant residue-feed-livestock-fertilizer-grain. This technology can kill most plant pathogenic bacteria, insect eggs, weeds, etc., but it is difficult to remove the spores, insect eggs, and some weed seeds of some pathogenic bacteria, and may also cause harm to crops.
After planting edible fungi, plant residues can be used to make organic fertilizer, or return them directly to the field
Mycelia can secrete certain hormones or special enzymes during the process of degrading plant residues. The fungus residue can be returned to the field as an organic fertilizer, which can improve fertilizer efficiency. Compared with direct retting compost, it has more available nutrients and better Increase production. The study found that the application of fungal residue can improve soil conditions and the availability of nitrogen and phosphorus, thereby increasing the yield of green pepper fruit and the content of sugar and vitamin C. But this method consumes a very limited amount of plant residue. Moreover, the plant nutrient content of different fungal residues is different; the effect of direct use on different fields will also be different; some fungal residues are infected with some harmful bacteria, which may cause harm to crop production.
Industrial organic fertilizer production
Taking a comprehensive view of the current methods for preparing organic fertilizers from plant residues, there are problems such as unstable effects and possible disease and insect damage to crops. These problems can be overcome if plant residues are produced and processed organic fertilizers by industrial methods. Because the industrialized production of organic fertilizers adopts a unified production process and method, unified standards and product quality inspection methods, it can ensure the stability of product quality, ensure the removal of pathogenic bacteria, insect eggs, and weed seeds, and will not cause side effects on crop production. It is also possible to produce organic-inorganic compound fertilizers suitable for various places according to the fertility status of different places, and to cooperate with chemical fertilizers to give full play to the role of organic fertilizers and chemical fertilizers, which is conducive to the popularization and application of organic fertilizers, thereby maintaining the sustainable development of soil fertility and ensuring my country’s food production. Production safety. On the other hand, the production of organic fertilizers by industrialized methods can liberate farmers from heavy physical labor and increase farmers’ enthusiasm for using organic fertilizers. At the same time, the industrialized production of organic fertilizer can also create some jobs and provide employment opportunities for some people. Therefore, it is of great significance and value to use plant residues to process and produce organic fertilizers.